A Review of Patterns of Evidence: Exodus

The Bible gives a very exact date for the Exodus: The Truth Is… The exact date of the Exodus is in dispute. As with many biblical historical issues, the two views are more a clash of how people view Scripture and differing methods of study based on those views than they are a result of conflicting interpretation of the historical evidence. The early date is usually placed in the middle 15th century around BC, while the late date is usually assigned to the close of the 13th century around BC. The early date relies most heavily on two specific biblical passages understood literally, while the late date relies on a more general view of the nature of Scripture combined with archaeological evidence. Both views depend heavily on assumptions concerning both the nature of Scripture and the methods of study used, as well as rational deduction based on those assumptions. It is for this reason that a brief survey of the debate may help illustrate how such opposing views can arise from conflicting assumptions and methods of historical research. Bratcher goes on to present the historical and biblical evidence for both dates.

Date of the Exodus

The Bible gives a very exact date for the Exodus: The Truth Is… The exact date of the Exodus is in dispute. The URL for the website is http:

This quick survey of the two positions on the date of the exodus demonstrates the tenuous nature of either position, whether working primarily from a literal reading of Scripture (the early date) or working primarily from the evidence of archaeological excavations (the late date).

The following article is based on Dr. A more thorough discussion can be found there. The so-called “early date” of ca. However, in Judges and 1 Samuel the Bible seems to indicate that the time between the Exodus and Samuel was longer. This biblical chronological conflict is easily seen by adding up the well-known 40 years of wilderness wandering, years of alternating periods of oppression and deliverance recorded in the book of Judges, 40 years for the career of Eli, 40 years for the reign of Saul, and 40 years for the reign of David.

This already totals years, though it does not include the time during which Joshua led Israel, nor the career of Samuel, and these two periods of time, while not specified biblically, must certainly total to something greater than 30 years they probably total close to 80 years in fact. Thus, the biblical stipulation of years from the Exodus to Solomon given in 1 Kings 6: As a result, the “early date” conflicts with these other biblical chronological data.

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The second number is the “week” which must be multiplied by 7. The third number is the year which must be added to the other totals to get the year of the world, or year from the creation of the world. The date of this writing is probably around the time of Christ. Pseudo-Philo states that there are 1, years from Adam to the flood while Philo says there are 2, years. In Pseudo-Philo when Moses was born Amram is told:

The Pharaohs of the Exodus There are two major views for the date of the exodus; the early date of BC and the late date of around BC. Though one cannot be completely sure of the date, most biblical scholars hold to the view.

What triggered the collapse? Death of the Bronze Age Special Feature: Mycenaeans conquered the island of Crete and adapted the Minoan script, called Linear A, to write their own language, an ancient form of Greek. This new script, called Linear B, was used solely for recording inventories and commercial transactions; hundreds of Linear B tablets have been found both on Crete and in such Mycenaean cities as Tiryns, Pylos and Mycenae itself. When Heinrich Schliemann excavated Mycenae in the s, he uncovered royal shaft graves filled with extraordinary gold artifacts such as the famous Mask of Agamemnon, shown at right.

All of the Mycenaean cities were destroyed toward the end of the 13th century B. In the early second millennium B. The Minoans were extremely influential in the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean—trading textiles, timber and wine to Cyprus for copper and Anatolia for tin. Minoan frescoes dating to the 17th century B. The Minoans also developed a script, the still-undeciphered Linear A, to write their language.

Miracle of Israel #10 – The Exodus Ship

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The Exodus is the founding myth of the Israelites. Spread over the books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, it tells of the enslavement that befell the children of Israel in Egypt, their liberation through the hand of Yahweh and the revelations at Sinai, and their wanderings in the wilderness up to borders of Canaan, the land their God has given them.

Weinberg and called the “Citizen-Temple Community”, proposes that the Exodus story was composed to serve the needs of a post-exilic Jewish community organised around the Temple, which acted in effect as a bank for those who belonged to it. Some influences have been trivial but curiously significant — medieval Irish and Scottish legendary history, for example, derived the name of Scotland from Scota, supposedly a daughter of the pharaoh of the Exodus who later emigrated to the British isles.

Sources and parallels[ edit ] While the Exodus story is no older than the Babylonian exile, there are indications that some historical memories underlie it: Ezion-Geber one of the Stations of the Exodus , for example, dates to a period between the 8th and 6th centuries BCE with possible further occupation into the 4th century BCE, [40] and those place-names on the Exodus route which have been identified — Goshen , Pithom , Succoth , Ramesses and Kadesh Barnea — point to the geography of the 1st millennium rather than the 2nd.

Ten Commandments

Excerpt Undoubtedly, one of the hottest topics in the field of OT biblical studies in recent years is the dating of the Exodus. On the side of the latter view, biblical archaeologists such as James Hoffmeier contend that a 13th century BC Exodus better fits the material evidence, in large part due to alleged connections between sites mentioned in the biblical text—such as the store-city of Raamses Exod 1: Tags Support Like this artice?

Our Ministry relies on the generosity of people like you. Every small donation helps us develop and publish great articles. The biblical text requires that the former is true, while archaeology requires that the latter is true.

One of the great scenes of Old Testament history is the exodus of Israel from Egyptian bondage. In this article, we wish to consider four aspects of this epochal event – the date of the exodus, the visitation of plagues upon Egypt, the passover, and the passage through the Red Sea.

Perhaps he may explore these questions in a future documentary. As I stated in my earlier blog on the film, the focus of attention was on the dating of the Exodus. This is where things got a little fuzzy for me, and I suspect the viewers as well. Essentially three main dating options were presented in the film. The reasoning and the evidence for each dating option, however, was not clearly explained.

In my view, that was really the crux of the matter. That is what people came to see and wanted to know. Mahoney presented three dating options for consideration: The late date B. Hoffmeier The early date B. My concern is that Christians may walk away from the film being even more agnostic about the Exodus than certain that it happened.


The Exodus account includes detailed patterns which testify of its precise date and that Jesus Christ was the Messiah whom Moses typified. Moses infuriated at idolatry. The date of the Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt at the time of Moses has been a subject of uncertainty and controversy for centuries.

Probably one of the most controversial and hotly debated subjects pertaining to biblical chronology is the dating of the Exodus. Basically, most biblical historians are divided between what are called the late date 1 and the early date 2 of the Exodus.

At that time men began to call upon the name of Yhwh. Yhwh sent Moses away with these instructions from the Yahwist. Yet, I will harden his heart so that he will not allow the people to leave. You must say to Pharaoh: Israel is my firstborn son, I command you, Let my son leave so that he may worship me. If you refuse to let him leave, I will slay your firstborn son. By this, Moses stands at the center, some claim, of a religious revolution.

He championed a religion devoted to one God against the pantheon of Egyptian gods and won. The description of disasters told here is graphic and engaging. The Nile turned to blood, making the water undrinkable. Then frogs invaded the land, and after they died, there was an infestation of gnats, then flies. Soon the livestock became diseased, and later animals and humans suffered from boils.

Crops were devastated, first by a hail storm and then by locusts. After all this, an impenetrable darkness descended on the land.

The Exodus

Critics often say there’s no record of their crossing the Red Sea and that sort of thing – totally understandable why. Because the Egyptians never recorded any reverses, or any defeats, of any kind. This would diminish the glory of the pharaoh!

Date of the Exodus. STUDY. PLAY. What are the two competing dates for the Israelite exodus from Egypt? What is the problem with the archaeological evidence for the late date? Egyptian city of Ramses. What archaeological evidence from Palestine seems to support the early date?

Most are split between two different views: Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty — BC Many conservative scholars hold to the early date for a number of reasons: First, this is the preferred date from Scripture. Second, this date is supported by some archaeological evidence. A few findings have been discovered: Hittite treaties from to BC match the biblical covenant Ex.

Egyptologists and biblical scholars have discovered a broken Egyptian statue pedestal with hieroglyphic name rings. The Hyksos invaded the Egyptians around BC. They were an Asiatic people, who took over the eastern Nile Delta. If this was the Hyksos dynasty, it would make sense of this statement. It is unlikely that the Egyptians would say this about the Hebrews, but the Hyksos could very well say this.

Abraham and the Chronology of Ancient Mesopotamia

Archaeologists Fail to Use Sound Reasoning This story is one that has been repeated time and again throughout more than a century of excavation Biblical Archaeology in Does Biblical Archaeology Exist? It will come as news to Bible and Spade readers that, in fact, there is no Biblical Archaeology. Tags Support Like this artice? Our Ministry relies on the generosity of people like you.

Dating the Exodus turns out to be a complex issue, dependent on chronological hints in the biblical text, evidence from history and archaeology, as well as certain assumptions. There are two recognized candidates, BCE and BCE.

So, Herman Hoeh came to a B. Notice also the following: Dating the Exodus The central text for establishing the exact date of the exodus, 1 Kgs 6: The Master’s Seminary Journal. Now, I would add that according to certain readings of an inscription on the “Merneptah Stele,” the ancient Israelites already occupied the land of Canaan during the B. The “Merneptah Stele” was discovered in It tells of a battle, shows people dressed like Canaanites, and tells of Egypt’s destroying seed of Israel.

This seed would likely be grain as Egypt did not destroy all of Israel then. Anyway, the “Merneptah Stele” basically means that idea that the Exodus happened during the time of Ramses II impossible.

New Find says Rethink Bible Dates